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14. Describe how you can test the hypothesis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium if all you know is observed genotype frequencies. Use complete sentences.
Let A be the dominant allele and a be recessive allele.
Observed Genotypes : AA, Aa, aa
p=freq A = ((observed AA count × 2) + observed Aa count) /
(total genotypes count × 2)
q=freq a = ((observed aa count × 2) + observed Aa count) / (total genotypes count × 2)
The equation for genotype frequencies are
pAA = freq A² = p2
pAa = 2 × freq A × freq a = 2pq
paa = freq a² = q2
The expected frequencies are calculated as:
expAA = pAA × total genotypes count
expAa = pAa × total genotypes count
expaa = paa × total genotypes count
Using the above formula, The Hardy-Weinberg equation is checked as:
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; p+q=1
Build a contingency table and calculate table using the formula
X² = (obsAA-expAA)²/(expAA) + (obsaa-expaa)²/(expaa) + (obsAa-expAa)²/(expAa)
From this X² value, a p-value can be calculated for a X² distribution with 1 degree of freedom.
14. Describe how you can test the hypothesis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium if all you know is...
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